New Delhi: Inc. has been repeatedly accused of knocking off merchandise it sells on its web site and of exploiting its huge trove of inner information to advertise its personal merchandise on the expense of different sellers. The corporate has denied the accusations.

However hundreds of pages of inner Amazon paperwork examined by Reuters – together with emails, technique papers and enterprise plans – present the corporate ran a scientific marketing campaign of making knockoffs and manipulating search outcomes to spice up its personal product traces in India, one of many firm’s largest development markets.

The paperwork reveal how Amazon’s private-brands workforce in India secretly exploited inner information from to repeat merchandise bought by different corporations, after which supplied them on its platform. The workers additionally stoked gross sales of Amazon private-brand merchandise by rigging Amazon’s search outcomes in order that the corporate’s merchandise would seem, as one 2016 technique report for India put it, “within the first 2 or three … search outcomes” when clients have been buying on

Among the many victims of the technique: a preferred shirt model in India, John Miller, which is owned by an organization whose chief government is Kishore Biyani, generally known as the nation’s “retail king.” Amazon determined to “observe the measurements of” John Miller shirts right down to the neck circumference and sleeve size, the doc states.

The interior paperwork additionally present that Amazon staff studied proprietary information about different manufacturers on, together with detailed details about buyer returns. The purpose: to establish and goal items – described as “reference” or “benchmark” merchandise – and “replicate” them. As a part of that effort, the 2016 inner report laid out Amazon’s technique for a model the corporate initially created for the Indian market known as “Solimo.” The Solimo technique, it stated, was easy: “use info from to develop merchandise after which leverage the platform to market these merchandise to our clients.”

The Solimo venture in India has had worldwide influence: Scores of Solimo-branded well being and family merchandise are actually supplied on the market on Amazon’s U.S. web site,


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The 2016 doc additional reveals that Amazon staff engaged on the corporate’s personal merchandise, generally known as non-public manufacturers or non-public labels, deliberate to companion with the producers of the merchandise focused for copying. That is as a result of they discovered that these producers make use of “distinctive processes which influence the tip high quality of the product.”

The doc, entitled “India Non-public Manufacturers Program,” states: “It’s tough to develop this experience throughout merchandise and therefore, to make sure that we’re in a position to absolutely match high quality with our reference product, we determined to solely companion with the producers of our reference product.” It termed such producer experience “Tribal Information.”

That is the second in a collection of tales based mostly on inner Amazon paperwork that present a uncommon, unvarnished look, within the firm’s personal phrases, into enterprise practices that it has denied for years.

has been accused earlier than by staff who labored on private-brand merchandise of exploiting proprietary information and manipulating search outcomes to extend gross sales of the corporate’s personal items.

In sworn testimony earlier than the US Congress in 2020, Amazon founder Jeff Bezos defined that the e-commerce big prohibits its staff from utilizing the info on particular person sellers to assist its private-label enterprise. And, in 2019, one other Amazon government testified that the corporate doesn’t use such information to create its personal private-label merchandise or alter its search outcomes to favor them.

However the inner paperwork seen by Reuters present for the primary time that, at the least in India, manipulating search outcomes to favor Amazon’s personal merchandise, in addition to copying different sellers’ items, have been a part of a proper, clandestine technique at Amazon – and that high-level executives have been informed about it. The paperwork present that two executives reviewed the India technique – senior vice presidents Diego Piacentini, who has since left the corporate, and Russell Grandinetti, who at present runs Amazon’s worldwide client enterprise.

In a written response to questions for this report, Amazon stated: “As Reuters hasn’t shared the paperwork or their provenance with us, we’re unable to verify the veracity or in any other case of the data and claims as said. We consider these claims are factually incorrect and unsubstantiated.” The corporate didn’t elaborate. The assertion additionally didn’t tackle questions from Reuters concerning the proof within the paperwork that Amazon staff copied different corporations’ merchandise for its personal manufacturers.

The corporate stated the best way it shows search outcomes would not favor private-brand merchandise. “We show search outcomes based mostly on relevance to the shopper’s search question, regardless of whether or not such merchandise have non-public manufacturers supplied by sellers or not,” Amazon stated.

Amazon additionally stated that it “strictly prohibits the use or sharing of private, seller-specific information for the advantage of any vendor, together with sellers of personal manufacturers,” and that it investigates studies of its staff violating that coverage. Piacentini and Grandinetti did not reply to requests for remark.

The unfiltered perception the paperwork provide into Amazon’s aggressive use of its market energy might intensify the authorized and regulatory stress the corporate is dealing with in lots of nations.

Amazon is below investigation in the US, Europe and India for alleged anti-competitive practices that damage different companies. In India, the allegations embody unfairly favoring its personal branded merchandise. Amazon declined to touch upon the investigations.

Jonas Koponen, an antitrust legal professional with Linklaters LLP in Brussels, stated the Reuters findings on Amazon’s practices in India would doubtless curiosity the European Fee, which is probing whether or not the corporate has used private vendor information to spice up its personal retail enterprise. India has cooperation agreements with the US and the European Fee to alternate info associated to enforcement of antitrust legal guidelines.

“When anyone competitors authority is wanting into facets of one in every of these globally current organizations’ conduct, they’ll definitely be all for understanding what proof there’s in different components of the world and the extent to which that proof pertains to the practices that they themselves are investigating,” Koponen stated.

The paperwork additionally help criticism of Amazon laid out by Lina Khan, the brand new chair of the U.S. Federal Commerce Fee, or FTC. Khan printed a paper in 2017 that argued that Amazon’s private-brand enterprise raised anti-competitive considerations.

“It’s third-party sellers who bear the preliminary prices and uncertainties when introducing new merchandise; by merely recognizing them, Amazon will get to promote merchandise solely as soon as their success has been examined,” she wrote. “The anticompetitive implications right here appear clear.”

Amazon filed a petition in June with the FTC asking that Khan recuse herself from all issues associated to the corporate due to “her repeated proclamations that Amazon has violated the antitrust legal guidelines.”

Khan and the FTC did not reply to requests for remark.

Within the first article on this collection, Reuters
reported in February that Amazon had for years given preferential remedy to a couple large sellers on its Indian platform, and used these sellers to avoid laws designed to guard the nation’s small retailers. That report triggered motion by India’s principal monetary crime-fighting company, which sought info and paperwork from Amazon. As well as, the nation’s antitrust watchdog submitted the story as an exhibit in a courtroom battle with Amazon over its investigation into the corporate’s alleged anti-competitive practices. The courtroom rejected Amazon’s request to halt the probe.

“We’re dedicated to extending cooperation to all authorities in India and are assured about our compliance,” Amazon stated in its assertion to Reuters.

Like many different retailers, Amazon views its personal manufacturers as a serious driver of elevated profitability. Non-public-brand merchandise typically have increased revenue margins than regular retail manufacturers as a result of manufacturing and advertising prices will be decrease.

An inner electronic mail despatched by Amazon government Grandinetti to a gaggle of firm executives in December 2018 said: “We consider that over the following a number of years, Non-public Manufacturers shall be one of the necessary development and profitability drivers within the Shopper enterprise.” Grandinetti added that firm executives believed non-public manufacturers “can obtain 10% penetration” of the corporate’s client enterprise worldwide over the following 5 years.

Introducing Amazon’s personal manufacturers was particularly essential in India. The corporate started its e-commerce foray there in 2013, and shortly recorded thousands and thousands of {dollars} in losses, one inner doc reveals. To make the enterprise “sustainable in the long term,” the 2016 Non-public Manufacturers doc notes, Amazon launched into a technique centered on introducing its present non-public manufacturers, similar to AmazonBasics, and new ones tailor-made to India.

The 2016 doc said a purpose: provide Amazon’s personal items in 20% to 40% of all product classes on inside two years. Amazon would obtain profitability in its private-brand enterprise by “solely launching merchandise that can present extra margin than comparable reference model merchandise.”

Amazon predicted private-brand gross sales would attain practically $600 million by 2020 in India, in accordance with a 2017 inner enterprise technique doc. “We shall be amongst the High 3 manufacturers in every sub-category that we play in,” the doc said.

Whether or not it achieved that gross sales purpose is not clear; Amazon would not disclose its private-brand gross sales in India. The corporate did not touch upon the strategic objectives and different particulars from the paperwork reported on this article.

An Amazon press launch in 2018 revealed simply how profitable its private-brand enterprise was turning into in India. Celebrating “report gross sales” throughout an annual promotion, the discharge said, “Amazon Manufacturers noticed its greatest efficiency ever with 11X leap over final Nice Indian Competition.”

Right this moment, lists hundreds of Amazon-branded choices – from rubbish baggage, mattress sheets and cleaning soap to air conditioners and televisions. In line with the web site, many are best-sellers.

One key particular person concerned in 2016 with Amazon’s private-brand enterprise in India was Amit Nanda, who later grew to become a rustic director of this system, in accordance with his LinkedIn profile. He holds an MBA from the Indian Institute of Administration, Ahmedabad, one of many nation’s prime enterprise faculties. Earlier than becoming a member of Amazon in 2014, in accordance with his LinkedIn profile, he labored at Citibank and the Indian arm of consumer-goods big Unilever.

As Amazon was reviewing its private-brand technique in India in 2016, Amazon India staff had a gathering with Grandinetti. A longtime Amazon supervisor, on the time he was in control of content material for Kindle, the corporate’s common studying machine. However Amazon had introduced that he would quickly lead its worldwide client enterprise, together with India.

In the course of the assembly, Nanda was assigned numerous duties, in accordance with one Amazon doc. Amongst them: The India non-public manufacturers “enterprise must be giant and worthwhile. Construct for scale.”

Nanda declined to remark for this story.


With its inhabitants of 1.3 billion folks and a rising center class, India represents an enormous and doubtlessly profitable marketplace for Amazon. However it’s additionally a rustic the place overseas e-commerce gamers face a posh and protectionist regulatory regime.

The nation’s brick-and-mortar retailers comprise an necessary political constituency for Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Involved that predatory pricing might damage these retailers, India prohibits overseas e-commerce gamers from promoting most items on to customers, as they do in lots of different nations. Amazon and different overseas corporations are restricted to working a web-based market of third-party sellers, with nobody vendor allowed to carry a bonus over one other. Because of this, Amazon sells most of its non-public manufacturers by way of different distributors.

In launching its private-brand enterprise, inner paperwork present how Amazon used its Indian web site to realize a transparent edge for its personal merchandise on the platform. The creation of its Solimo model presents a case research.

In line with the interior paperwork, the phrase Solimo is derived from Solimões – the identify for the higher stretches of the Amazon River in Brazil.

With the Solimo line, Amazon aimed to supply gadgets that equaled or exceeded the standard of competing manufacturers however have been 10% to fifteen% cheaper, the 2016 Non-public Manufacturers doc reveals. Amazon staff studied completely different product classes, and in contrast their total market measurement with how properly these segments have been doing on They then focused classes similar to residence furnishings. Amazon discovered that furnishings was a $2 billion enterprise in India – however its personal web site’s three-month gross sales in mid-2014 totaled about $1 million.

In its evaluation, Amazon used a metric known as “look views” that quantified which merchandise have been being considered by clients on its web site. Explaining why it zeroed in on look views, the 2016 Amazon doc famous that monitoring its India web site site visitors supplies “a possibility to affect clients who’re actively contemplating” a purchase order in a product class.

Amazon has stated a number of the information its private-brand groups use in launching merchandise is public – similar to the web site’s rankings of best-selling merchandise. That is how Amazon described the system to a U.S. congressional subcommittee final 12 months: “Like anybody else at Amazon or in most of the people, members of those groups may also go to Amazon’s product element pages to study a product’s greatest vendor rating and skim buyer critiques and star scores to evaluate whether or not a product is promoting properly in Amazon’s retailer.”

However seven present and former Indian sellers on informed Reuters they cannot entry inner gross sales information of rival manufacturers supplied on the web site. 4 of the sellers stated they’ll entry look views, however just for their very own merchandise. Amazon has entry to extra information on sellers, together with the variety of product models shipped and particulars about buyer returns, the 2016 doc reveals, giving it a bonus in market intelligence.

Amazon’s personal use of the info to develop and promote its private-brand merchandise “destroys the extent taking part in discipline,” stated one present vendor, who requested to stay nameless.

Amazon stated in its assertion that it “doesn’t give preferential remedy to any vendor on its market.” The corporate additionally stated it “identifies choice gaps based mostly on buyer preferences at an combination stage solely and shares this info with all sellers.”


As soon as Amazon’s private-brand staff had determined which classes to enter, they reviewed gross sales and customer-review information on to establish “reference” or “benchmark” manufacturers to “replicate,” the 2016 private-brand doc confirmed.

Within the case of Solimo, the 2016 doc said that to make sure the model’s items meet “buyer necessities when it comes to efficiency we establish and replicate these reference merchandise.” Amazon had no touch upon the Solimo venture.

Amazon’s technique additionally known as for producers of its private-brand merchandise to make use of different corporations’ items as fashions to develop samples for pre-production testing.

Among the many manufacturers Amazon staff deliberate to “benchmark,” the doc states, have been American ones – “Previous Navy/GAP” males’s shirts. The doc doesn’t point out whether or not the workers adopted by way of.

Hole Inc, which owns the Previous Navy and Hole manufacturers, declined to remark.

The rival merchandise Amazon focused additionally included different manufacturers common in India. For pots and pans, a “reference model” was Status, one in every of India’s largest kitchen-equipment corporations. For males’s shirts, the benchmarks included Peter England and Louis Philippe, each made in India by conglomerate Aditya Birla Group.

Amazon additionally focused John Gamers, a menswear model then owned by Indian conglomerate ITC Ltd.

Chandru Kalro, managing director of TTK Status, which owns the Status model in India, informed Reuters, “We have now no information of us being a ‘reference model’ for Amazon and we do not know what it means to be an Amazon reference model.”

Aditya Birla Group declined to remark. ITC didn’t reply to a request for remark.

In early 2016, Amazon private-brand staff have been internally noting the success of Xessentia, a clothes model they’d launched on in partnership with a vendor. The vendor owned the model; Amazon designed the merchandise.

Gross sales of Xessentia males’s enterprise shirts have been surging, and within the first quarter of 2016 had grow to be that class’s second-most common model on the India website after the American model Arrow, licensed to the Indian firm Arvind Fashions. To create the Xessentia line, Amazon had used Louis Philippe because the benchmark model, as a result of it was “premium and common,” the 2016 doc stated.

However one thing was amiss: About one in each 12 Xessentia shirts was being returned within the first quarter of 2016 for sizing points. Greater than 350 have been returned as a result of clients complained they have been too small.

Amazon staff carried out a “deep dive,” the 2016 doc studies, by poring over a 12 months’s value of knowledge from, together with buyer complaints and return numbers for Xessentia, Arrow and 7 different manufacturers. They discovered {that a} model of males’s enterprise shirts in India known as John Miller had far outsold Xessentia shirts, regardless of carrying “an identical” common promoting value. John Miller additionally had about half the speed of buyer returns for “high quality points.”

The upshot: “Our studying is that our buyer is completely different from the Louis Philippe buyer and would not desire this match,” the 2016 doc said. “We concluded to observe the measurements of Enterprise Shirt of John Miller for Xessentia due to large acceptance with our buyer base.”

So Amazon revised the match of Xessentia shirts to repeat John Miller’s sizing, matching it right down to the neck, shoulder, armhole, sleeve and waist dimensions.

Amazon did not reply to questions on its Xessentia venture. Arvind Fashions declined to remark.

John Miller is a model owned by retail mogul Kishore Biyani. Amazon and Biyani later grew to become enterprise companions in India, however had a falling out. Amazon is now embroiled in a authorized battle with Biyani over the proposed sale of his retail property to Reliance, which is run by billionaire Mukesh Ambani, thought-about India’s wealthiest man. Ambani and Amazon are fierce rivals, with the Indian magnate lately launching his personal e-commerce enterprise.

A spokesperson for Biyani’s Future Group stated the corporate was “shocked and shocked” to study that Amazon was utilizing Indian manufacturers to construct its personal. “They’re in a robust place of being each a web-based market operator and a vendor and collector of knowledge,” the spokesperson stated in a press release to Reuters. “That is resulting in misuse of client and vendor information giving them the ability to kill Indian entrepreneurs and their manufacturers.”

After the launch of Xessentia, Amazon launched a model of U.S.-and-European-style garments in India known as Image.

“For each product line recognized for launch, we’ll establish an optimum reference model based mostly on buyer critiques and measurement of enterprise,” state the plans for Image and one other non-public model. “The replication of the ‘Match’ of this reference model shall be an important step in our product growth course of.”

The Image model continues to be going robust. On Oct. 11, 11 of the highest 25 best-selling males’s formal shirts on carried the Image model identify.


Amazon has been repeatedly accused in the US of copying product designs.

In 2018, home-goods retailer Williams-Sonoma Inc filed a federal lawsuit towards Amazon, accusing the e-commerce big of copying its proprietary designs for chairs, lamps and different merchandise for an Amazon non-public model known as Rivet.

“Amazon has engaged in a scientific marketing campaign of copying,” the lawsuit alleged. The reveals filed within the case included footage of similar-looking merchandise from Amazon and a Williams-Sonoma model. In courtroom filings, Amazon denied the copying allegations. Final 12 months, the 2 events reached a confidential settlement. Each did not remark concerning the case for this story.

Joey Zwillinger, co-founder of Allbirds Inc, a San Francisco-based maker of sustainable footwear and attire, informed Reuters that round 2016 or 2017, Amazon started inviting his firm to promote its items on the e-commerce big’s platform. Allbirds stated no.

Then, in 2019, Amazon launched a wool-blend sneaker that intently resembled a preferred Allbirds wool shoe – and bought for a lot much less. Zwillinger stated the Amazon product used cheaper materials however that the design was so comparable, “it is arduous to inform the distinction in a silhouette.”

Allbirds did not sue. There are all the time delicate variations in designs, and copycat instances will be time-consuming, Zwillinger stated. However he and Allbirds’ different co-founder posted on-line a letter to Bezos, noting that the Amazon product was “strikingly much like our Wool Runner” sneaker. Writing that Allbirds was “flattered on the similarities,” they supplied to assist Amazon use extra sustainable supplies in its product.

Zwillinger informed Reuters that they did not obtain a response. Amazon had no remark.

In India, Amazon did not simply knock off merchandise for itself. One in every of its staff instructed that one other vendor think about replicating an organization’s merchandise.

In 2020, Amazon India worker Aditi Singh suggested Mohit Anand, who was then promoting merchandise on, on how he might succeed on the platform. She instructed that Anand “replicate” a furnishings firm’s merchandise, in accordance with a recording of a telephone name reviewed by Reuters.

Noting that an Indian furnishings model known as DeckUp was promoting properly on, Singh instructed that if Anand have been to “replicate DeckUp’s vary” and cost decrease costs, then the merchandise “will promote very properly” on Anand informed Reuters that he did not take the recommendation.

Utheja Pulluri, DeckUp’s founder and a former Amazon India worker, stated that so long as the e-commerce big was “not sharing confidential information on us, I haven’t got an issue … This seems to be enterprise steering, a generic perception.”

Singh referred a Reuters request for remark to Amazon’s public relations workforce. The corporate did not remark.


How excessive merchandise rank when clients search the Amazon web site is essential to on-line sellers’ success. An inner doc in 2017 famous that greater than half of customers’ clicks on search outcomes are for the merchandise listed within the prime eight.

Amazon has stated its search algorithms do not favor its private-brand merchandise. Requested through the 2019 congressional listening to whether or not Amazon alters algorithms to direct customers to its personal items, affiliate normal counsel Nate Sutton replied: “The algorithms are optimized to foretell what clients need to purchase whatever the vendor.”

But the interior Amazon paperwork present that in India, Amazon manipulated search outcomes to favor its personal merchandise.

The corporate used a method known as “search seeding” to spice up the rankings of its AmazonBasics and Solimo model items, in accordance with the 2016 private-brand report. Referring to Amazon’s product codes – generally known as ASINs, or Amazon Customary Identification Numbers – the report said: “We used search seeding for newly launched ASINs to make sure that they function within the first 2 or three ASINs in search outcomes.”

The doc additionally referred to a different approach that gave Amazon an edge: “search sparkles.”

“We have now aggressively used search sparkles on PC, Cellular and App to particularly promote Solimo merchandise on related buyer searches from ‘All Product Search’ and Class search,” the 2016 private-brand report stated.

In line with one present and two former Amazon staff, search seeding and search sparkles are digital methods the corporate has used to direct clients to sure merchandise.

Two of the sources stated Amazon has used seeding to change search rankings to spice up merchandise, similar to new ones, whose gross sales are so low that there is inadequate information for the corporate’s know-how to rank them. Sparkles are banners that Amazon has planted above search outcomes to direct clients to sure merchandise the corporate needs to advertise.

Whereas such instruments have official makes use of to help internet buyers discover sure scorching new merchandise, utilizing search seeding to spice up the rankings of Amazon’s personal merchandise hurts rival retailers’ gross sales on the platform, one of many former staff stated.

Search seeding and sparkles have been each used to advertise AmazonBasics merchandise on the corporate’s India platform, the 2016 doc reveals. Inside months of the launch of AmazonBasics in India in 2015, 4 of its merchandise have been “#1 Bestsellers of their class week after week,” the 2016 doc stated. It added that “promos” have been positioned on “element pages of competitor merchandise to direct site visitors to AmazonBasics manufacturers merchandise.”

Piyush Tulsian, a New Delhi retailer of pc equipment, informed Reuters he used to earn about $1,500 a month promoting mouse pads on made by Logitech Worldwide, which is headquartered in Switzerland.

Then, about two years in the past, he stated he began noticing that his gross sales have been dropping. He stated he found that clients who considered particulars concerning the Logitech mouse pad he was promoting for $21 have been proven an commercial for an AmazonBasics pad that was about 60% cheaper. The Logitech product additionally started showing a lot decrease in search outcomes, he stated.

“It’s extremely irritating,” stated Tulsian, who’s 36. “They’re mistreating sellers.” He stated he stopped promoting the Logitech mouse pad on and was caught with 150 unsold ones.

Amazon had no remark. Logitech declined to remark.

Controversy over the enterprise practices of overseas e-commerce corporations in India has heated up in current months. In June, the federal government proposed draft laws that threaten to impose additional restrictions on Amazon and different e-commerce corporations, together with native gamers, after receiving complaints by customers and merchants of unfair enterprise practices. The proposed guidelines might prohibit Amazon and others from promoting their very own private-brand merchandise in India.

Later that month, India’s commerce minister accused giant e-commerce corporations of flouting native legal guidelines and stated he had noticed “just a little little bit of conceitedness,” notably by American ones. The opposite large platform in India is Flipkart, owned by American retail big Walmart Inc. Flipkart did not remark.

In early July, Amazon introduced it could introduce to India a program it already presents companies elsewhere. Known as the “Mental Property Accelerator” program, it offers sure sellers on entry to companies supplied by intellectual-property specialists and legislation companies.

One purpose, Amazon stated, is to assist sellers “shield their manufacturers.”

(Reporting by Aditya Kalra and Steve Stecklow. Further reporting by Jeffrey Dastin in San Francisco. Edited by Peter Hirschberg.)

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